Thanks to technology progress, customer expectations and demands for products in all
fields of production and personal consumption are constantly increasing. Organisations and
companies are being challenged to produce high quality products even faster and cheaper than
ever before. In compliance with the total quality management philosophy and ISO 9000:2000
standards process approach, the organisation management should use measurement of
customer satisfaction as a vitally important tool and relievs that problem to handle.
Monitoring and measurement of customers satisfaction as a process of quality
Customer satisfaction is generally defined as a set of complex feelings evoked by the
discrepancy between customer requirements and perceived reality in the market. Marketing
and quality management deal with customer satisfaction and methods of its assessment, and
also theoretical approaches offering a number of particular applications. For many companies,
satisfying the customer requirements have become a measure of success and hence the
company aim. Yet the concept of customer satisfaction is frequently misunderstood and
limited to dealing with claims.
Customer satisfaction takes place in a customer head and may, but does not have to,
comply with reality. People generally develop their attitudes quickly and change them very
slowly. Customers may be mistaken in perceiving a product/service quality and their
unreliable misperceptions then give birth to millions of buying decisions every day.
Assessment of customer satisfaction is in fact assessment of how the customers perceive the
company activity as a supplier (Hill 1996). When assessing customer satisfaction, the
following formula defining measurable level of customer perception can be used:
RCS = f (x) ,
where RCS means rate of customer satisfaction and x defines difference between
requirements and real value. The high rate of satisfaction is one of the guaranties of customer
In compliance with the total quality management philosophy and ISO 9000:2000 standards
process approach, the organisation management should use measurement of customer
satisfaction as a vitally important tool.
The organisation should plan and establish processes to listen to the voice of customer
effectively. It should define and implement methods of data collection, including information
sources, frequency of collection and data analysis review. Examples of sources of information
on customer satisfaction include:
- customer complaints,
- communicating directly with customers,
- questionnaires and surveys,
- subcontracted collection and analysis of data,
- focus groups,
- reports from customer organisations,
- reports in various media,
- sector and industry studies.
Monitoring and measurement of customer satisfaction is based on review of customerrelated
information. The collection of such information may be active or passive.
Management should recognise that there are many sources of customer-related information,
and should establish effective and efficient processes to collect, analyse and use this
information for improving the performance of the organisation. The organisation should
identify internal and external sources of customer and user information, available in written or
verbal forms. The process of requesting, measuring and monitoring feedback on customer
satisfaction should provide information on a continual basis. It should comprise meeting
needs and expectations of customers, as well as the price and delivery of product.
Examples of customer – related information include:
- customer and user surveys,
- feedback on aspects of product,
- customer requirements and contract information,
- market needs,
- service delivery data,
- information relating to competition,
- information relating to satisfaction with prices,
- information relating to satisfaction with delivery,
- information relating to satisfaction with sale support.
Regarding the process of building the quality management system, monitoring and
measurement of customer satisfaction in organisation ranges among supportive microprocesses
and usually follows up such processes as determining product-related requirements,
processing customer databases, delivery process etc. where inputs into process are mainly lists
of customers, respectively lists of their requirements. The process outputs must be recorded as
a result of monitoring and measurement of customer satisfaction, for example as satisfaction
indexes for follow up processes, such as the process of leadership reviews, process of data
The process activities involve procedure of monitoring and measurement of satisfaction,
§ defining the signs of customer satisfaction,
§ designing and preparing questionnaires for monitoring the customer satisfaction,
§ defining the size of a sample / so called customer sampling,
§ choosing the appropriate method for data collection
§ designing procedures for data evaluation, including quantification of customer
§ using the measurement results as an input for improvement processes.
Sources necessary to implement the process comprise:
§ human resources, i.e. internal and external workers for collecting data from customers,
§ financial sources necessary to cover expenditures for monitoring and measurement of
§ information sources, usually represented by software,
§ equipment, such as personal computer and car,
§ environment where the process takes place is usually directly in the field, i.e. in the
market, among the consumers.
Necessary system documentation is provided by the procedure for measurement of external
customer satisfaction. Within this quality management process approach, records on results of
customer monitoring and measurement e.g. in the form of graphical output are compulsory.
The process of monitoring and measuring customer satisfaction documented in such a way
enables permanent, stable and correct information gathering of that may become a basis for
foreseeing and identifying the changes in environment with the risk of potential crisis.
Application of management of quality, marketing and customer relationship management
in entrepreneurial subjects requires purposive training of the plant managers, forming
management teams, working out strategically plans of quality and providing marketing
communication with customers. Only inventive organisations and plants are capable of doing
The inventive organisations understand that the change is constant; they are creative,
ingenious, and rich with ideas. They have to constantly adapt to turbulent environment they
perform in and help to shape it at the same time.
Crisis situations are generally successfully managed by the organisations that introduce
§ quick stabilisation and transparent proprietary relationships connected with
§ purposive training of the plant top managers in contemporary managerial approaches,
including quality management, crisis management, management of change, marketing
management, re-engineering etc.,
§ orientation on product quality and re-structuring of production programme in
compliance with the demands of changing market,
§ acceptation of the “customer satisfaction” concept and processes of its monitoring and
measurement as a main factor influencing the company prosperity,
§ changes of working and employment relationships oriented on increasing requirements
for work discipline and employee responsibility,
§ systematic purpose training and re-training schemes for all employees from the
A successful organization is a dynamic, learning and developing system. It does not act
within pre-programmed repetitive patterns. The top management of an inventive organization
should dispose sources, methods and tools enabling to foresee crisis, accept change and adapt
to it. Along with this, it is necessary to measure and monitor information relating to meeting
the requirements of their customers, i.e. information on customer satisfaction.
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